J Herbmed Pharmacol. 2017;6(2): 74-79.
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Original Article

In vitro antifungal effect of herbal mixture (Nigella sativa, Foeniculum vulgare and Camellia sinensis) against Candida species isolated from denture wearers

Alireza Naeini 1, Seyed-Shojaddin Shayegh 2, Hojjatollah Shokri 3 * , Ali Davati 4, Ali Khazaei 5, Abdollah Akbari 6

1 Department of Parasitology and Mycology, Faculty of Medicine and Traditional Medicine Clinical Trail Research Center, Shahed University, Tehran, Iran
2 Department of Prostodontics, Dental School, Shahed University, Tehran, Iran
3 Department of Pathobiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Amol University of Special Modern Technologies, Amol, Iran
4 Department of Social Medicine and Health, Faculty of Medicine, Shahed University, Tehran, Iran
5 Dentist, Health Network, Noorabad, Lorestan, Iran
6 Dentist, Qom University of Medical Sciences, Qom, Iran


Introduction: Due to antimicrobial and dental plaque control activities, herbal mouthwashes lead to an improvement in oral health. Although chemical mouthwashes have demonstrated the greatest antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory effects, their usage has been limited because of their numerous side effects. The aim of this study was to assess the antifungal activity of herbal mixtures containing Nigella sativa, Foeniculum vulgare and Camellia sinensis against oral isolates of Candida from denture wearers.Methods: We selected 93 individuals wearing complete denture prosthesis. Samples were collected from oral mucosa and dentures and cultured onto Sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA). The antifungal activities of N. sativa, F. vulgare and C. sinensis and their mixtures (no. 1, 2 and 3) against oral isolates of Candida were determined using punch-hole test.Results: The oral cavities of all denture wearers were colonized with yeasts. Among the Candida species, Candida albicans was the most frequently recovered species (45; 48.4%), followed by C. tropicalis (14; 15%), C. krusei (9; 9.7%), C. glabrata (6; 6.5%), C. dubliniensis (4; 4.3%) and Candida spp. (15; 16.1%). Among the tested plants, N. sativa (mean value: 12.3 mm) and F. vulgare (mean value: 7.9 mm) showed positive results against all Candida isolates. The results exhibited that all herbal mixtures were active against various tested Candida isolates, ranging from 7.8 to 15 mm, 7.6 to 15.5 mm and 7 to 15 mm inhibition zones for herbal mixtures no. 1, 2 and 3, respectively.Conclusion: The results indicated that C. albicans was the most prevalent Candida species. N. sativa and F. vulgare were good antifungal agents against oral species of Candida isolated from individuals wearing complete dentures, hence, there is a possible usefulness as therapeutic agents.
Keywords: Denture wearer, Oral microflora, Candida albicans, Herbal mixture, Nigella sativa
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Revision: 01 Jan 2017
ePublished: 28 Mar 2017
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