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J Herbmed Pharmacol. 2017;6(2): 69-73.
  Abstract View: 3045
  PDF Download: 1904

Original Article

Ethanolic extract of anise (Pimpinella anisum L.) attenuates morphine physical dependence in mice

Dara Shirzadi 1, Saeid Abbasi-Maleki 2*, Ali Zanbouri 1

1 Physiology Department, Maragheh Branch, Islamic Azad University, Maragheh, Iran
2 Pharmacology & Toxicology Department, Urmia Branch, Islamic Azad University, Urmia, Iran
*Corresponding Author: Email: s.abbasi@iaurmia.ac.ir

Abstract

Introduction: Previous studies revealed that anise (Pimpinella anisum L.) has several pharmacological effects including analgesic, antidepressant, anxiolytic, anti-inflammatory and antispasmodic activities. This study aimed to evaluate its effect on morphine physical dependence in mice.Methods: In this experimental study, 40 male NMRI mice (25-30 g) were randomly divided into 5 groups of 8. Control group received morphine and normal saline (10 mL/kg, i.p.) and other groups received diazepam (5 mg/kg) plus one of three doses of P. anisum (50,100 or 200 mg/kg, i.p.). Dependence was induced by administration of increasing doses (50-75 mg/kg, i.p.) of morphine. A time of 30 minutes after naloxone injection was considered for the critical period of the withdrawal syndrome. The number of jumps and scores of 0 to 3 were given for incidences of wet dog shakes, teeth chattering, climbing, writing, diarrhea, grooming, and rearing during a 30-minute period.Results: All doses of P. anisum (P < 0.01) reduced the number of jumps. Additionally, all doses of the extract reduced the behaviors of grooming (P < 0.05, P < 0.01 and P < 0.01, respectively) and writhing (P < 0.05, P < 0.001and P < 0.001, respectively). None doses of the extract could reduce diarrhea (P > 0.05). Climbing, rearing and wet dog shakes reduced only by the high dose of the extract (P < 0.05). Teeth chattering reduced by 100 and 200 mg/kg of the extract (P < 0.05).Conclusion: These results obviously show that P. anisum ethanolic extract is effective in suppression of morphine physical dependence and further studies are needed to find out the responsible constituents and also the exact mechanisms of actions.
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Revision: 13 Feb 2017
ePublished: 28 Mar 2017
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