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J Herbmed Pharmacol. 2017;6(2): 55-61.
  Abstract View: 3664
  PDF Download: 1968

Original Article

Anti-inflammatory activities of dichloromethane-methanolic leaf and stem bark extracts of Ximenia americana in mice models

Daniel M. Gaichu 1*, Peter M. Nthiga 1, Duncan M. Kariuki 1, Matthew P. Ngugi 1, David N. Mburu 1

1 Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, School of Pure and Applied Sciences, Kenyatta University, P.O. Box 43844-00100, Nairobi, Kenya
*Corresponding Author: Email: danielgaichu2016@gmail.com

Abstract

Introduction: Ximenia americana is a highly branched shrub mainly found in tropics of Asia, Africa, New Zealand, Central and South America among others. In most parts of Africa, X. americana is used in folklore to treat various disorders such as oedema, pain, fever, helminthiasis, diarrhea and burns among others. There is no published data on anti-inflammatory activities of organic extracts of X. americana. It is against this background that this research was carried out. The study tested for the anti-inflammatory activities of dichloromethane-methanolic (DCMMeOH) leaf and stem bark extracts of X. americana in rats. Methods: The plant materials were collected from Mbeere North sub-county, Embu county, Kenya. Methanol and dichloromethane in the ratio of 1:1 was used to extract the active compounds. Five to 6 weeks old Swiss Albino mice were employed for the anti-inflammatory studies. Animals were divided into 6 groups of 5 mice each: normal, negative, reference and three experimental groups (50, 100 and 150 mg/kg body weight). Inflammation was induced experimentally using carrageenan. The experimental groups were treated with predetermined dose quantities of prepared extracts. Diclofenac was used as the reference drug. Data was analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results: The extracts from the leaves reduced hind paw circumference by between 0.91% and 16.90% while the stem bark extracts reduced hind paw circumference by between 5.84% and 29.00%. Diclofenac reduced right hind paw circumference by 1.32%-29.60%. Qualitative phytochemical screening showed presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, steroids, saponins, cardiac glycosides, phenolics and terpenoids in the extract. Conclusion: The study established that the DCM-MeOH leaf and stem bark extracts of X. americana is effective in management of inflammation and therefore it can be explored as a possible bio-resource in the development of herbal medicines.

Introduction: Ximenia americana is a highly branched shrub mainly found in tropics of Asia, Africa, New Zealand, Central and South America among others. In most parts of Africa, X. americana is used in folklore to treat various disorders such as oedema, pain, fever, helminthiasis, diarrhea and burns among others. There is no published data on anti-inflammatory activities of organic extracts of X. americana. It is against this background that this research was carried out. The study tested for the anti-inflammatory activities of dichloromethane-methanolic (DCMMeOH) leaf and stem bark extracts of X. americana in rats. Methods: The plant materials were collected from Mbeere North sub-county, Embu county, Kenya. Methanol and dichloromethane in the ratio of 1:1 was used to extract the active compounds. Five to 6 weeks old Swiss Albino mice were employed for the anti-inflammatory studies. Animals were divided into 6 groups of 5 mice each: normal, negative, reference and three experimental groups (50, 100 and 150 mg/kg body weight). Inflammation was induced experimentally using carrageenan. The experimental groups were treated with predetermined dose quantities of prepared extracts. Diclofenac was used as the reference drug. Data was analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results: The extracts from the leaves reduced hind paw circumference by between 0.91% and 16.90% while the stem bark extracts reduced hind paw circumference by between 5.84% and 29.00%. Diclofenac reduced right hind paw circumference by 1.32%-29.60%. Qualitative phytochemical screening showed presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, steroids, saponins, cardiac glycosides, phenolics and terpenoids in the extract. Conclusion: The study established that the DCM-MeOH leaf and stem bark extracts of X. americana is effective in management of inflammation and therefore it can be explored as a possible bio-resource in the development of herbal medicines.
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Revision: 24 Feb 2017
ePublished: 28 Mar 2017
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